sack of amorium

قایناق‌لار Mu'tasim targeted Amorium, a Byzantine city in western Asia Minor (modern Anatolia), because it was the birthplace of the ruling Byzantine dynasty and, at the time, one of Byzantium's largest and most important cities. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. According to Byzantine sources, the caliph had the city's name written on the shields and banners of his soldiers. Sack of Amorium‎ (5 F) Media in category "Amorium" The following 6 files are in this category, out of 6 total. Sack of Amorium on A tower was pushed over the filled moat, but became stuck midway and it and the other siege engines had to be abandoned and burned. Emperor Alexios I Komnenos defeated the Seljuks at Amorium in 1116, but the area was never recovered. Byzantine Empire – Wikipedia This had the added benefit of confirming the presence of a widespread and consistent destruction layer that should probably be associated with a major historical event, namely the siege and sack of Amorium in 838. Prime members enjoy FREE Delivery and exclusive access to music, movies, TV shows, original audio series, and Kindle books. March 6th, 2016 Headsman. [19][20], With the rest of his army, Theophilos then marched to interpose himself between the Cilician Gates and Ancyra, camping on the north bank of the river Halys, close to one of the major river crossings. Arab/Islamic sources refer to the city as Ammuriye. The Arab advance was slow and cautious. Although his generals advised evacuation of the city, with the intention of rendering the Arabs' campaign objective void and keeping the Byzantine army undivided, Theophilos decided to reinforce the city's garrison, with Aetios the strategos of the Anatolics, and men from the tagmata of the Excubitors and the Vigla. [16] Due to its strategic importance, the city had been a frequent target of Arab attacks in the 7th and 8th centuries, and Mu'tasim's predecessor Ma'mun was said to be planning to attack the city when he died in 833. Work also continued in the Lower City Church. [10][11] Theophilos's campaign was unable, however, to save Babak and his followers, who in late 837 were forced from their mountain strongholds by the general Afshin. Amorium is an archaeological site in ancient Phrygia, part of central western Anatolia.It is located at the modern Turkish village of Hisarköy, near Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar. [15] The capital of the powerful Anatolic Theme, the city was strategically located at the western edge of the Anatolian plateau and controlled the main southern route followed by the Arab invasions. [45], Excerpt from Abu Tammam's Ode on the Conquest of Amorium. [23][25][26], The Arab army marched in three separate corps, with Ashinas once again in front, the caliph in the middle, and Afshin bringing up the rear. Unable to break through the besieging army, the commander of the breached section privately attempted to negotiate with the Caliph. Please try again. [18][19] On the Byzantine side, Theophilos was soon made aware of the caliph's intentions, and set out from Constantinople in early June. "Mise au point sur Théophobe et l'alliance de Babek avec Théophile (833/834-839/840)" (in French). To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Theophilos reportedly fell ill soon after the city's fall, and although he recovered, his health remained in poor state until his death, three years later. Amorium: A Byzantine City in Anatolia - An Archaeological Guide (Homer Archaeological Guides) Chris Lightfoot, Mucahide Lightfoot. There was an error retrieving your Wish Lists. [22][23] Theophilos quickly began regrouping his forces and sent the general Theodore Krateros to Ancyra. After viewing product detail pages, look here to find an easy way to navigate back to pages you are interested in. [46], "A victory in honour of which the gates of heaven open and earth comes forth in her new garments.O day of the battle of 'Ammūriya, (our) hopes have returned from you overflowing with honey-sweet milk;You have left the fortunes of the sons of Islam in the ascendant, and the polytheists and the abode of polytheism in decline. A History of Medicine: In the s Abbasid Caliphate started military excursions culminating with a victory in the Sack of Amorium. The surviving population were divided as slaves among the army leaders, except for the city's military and civic leaders, who were reserved for the caliph's disposal. Faced with intrigues at Constantinople and the rebellion of the large Khurramite contingent of his army, Theophilos was unable to aid the city. The Byzantines took the towns of Sozopetra and Arsamosata, ravaged and plundered the countryside, extracted ransom from several cities in exchange for not attacking them, and defeated a number of smaller Arab forces. [49] Arabs on the other hand celebrated the capture of Amorium, which became the subject of Abu Tammam's famous Ode on the Conquest of Amorium. It was also the birthplace of Theophilos's father, Michael II the Amorian (r. 820–829), and perhaps of Theophilos himself. Mu'tasim set out with his army a day's march along the road in the direction of Dorylaion, but encountered no sign of a Byzantine attack. After sacking the city, they turned south to Amorium, where they arrived on 1 August. Sack of Amorium آموران (به یونانی : Ἀμόριον ‎ آموریون ؛ در منابع اسلامی عموریه ) شهری فریگی در آسیای صغیر است که در دوران هلنی برپا شد و پس از حمله معتصم عباسی در سال Û¸Û³Û¸ ویران گشت. Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838.Its ruins are located near the village of Hisarköy, Turkey. Mu'tasim learned of Theophilos's departure from captives and tried to warn Afshin, but the emperor was faster and met Afshin's army in the Battle of Anzen on the plain of Dazimon on 22 July. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations, Select the department you want to search in. The named reference Karlin-Heyer 24 was invoked but never defined see the help page. Even during the phase of continuous Byzantine military expansion in the late 10th century, Byzantine military manuals mention armies of 25,000 as exceptionally large and fit to be led by the emperor in person. Though they were people of rank in their lifetimes, most of them are not known to posterity by name or even position. The two forces would link up at Ancyra, before marching jointly on Amorium. Discover elegant stackable rings, heart necklaces, rose gold ear … Other writers give far larger numbers, ranging from 200,000 to 500,000 according to al-Mas'udi.a[›][14] Unlike earlier campaigns, which did not go far beyond attacking the forts of the frontier zone, this expedition was intended to penetrate deep into Asia Minor and exact vengeance. The Abbasids penetrated deep into Byzantine-held Asia Minor, while the northern army defeated the Byzantine forces under Theophilos at Anzen. A detailed plan, color-coded for clarity, was drawn up and scrupulously checked on site. Theophilos was an ambitious man and also a convinced adherent of Byzantine Iconoclasm, which prohibited the depiction of divine figures and the veneration of icons. ", The sack of Amorium was one of the most devastating events in the long history of Arab raids into Anatolia. Hymns. Many of its inhabitants were slaughtered, and the remainder driven off as slaves. [54], The most long-term result of the fall of Amorium, however, was in the religious rather than in the military sphere. The Sack of Amorium by the Abbasid Caliphate in mid-August 838 was one of the major events in the long history of the Arab–Byzantine Wars. In retaliation, Mu'tasim, after separating the most prominent among them, executed the rest, some 6,000 in number. In the 830s Abbasid Caliphate started military excursions culminating with a victory in the Sack of Amorium. Amorium - Wikipedia Nevertheless, in the same year, the execution of the surviving Byzantine prisoners from the Arab Sack of Amorium in 842 took place in the Abbasid capital, Samarra. [47][48] The fall of Amorium inspired several legends and stories among the Byzantines, and can be traced in surviving literary works such as the Song of Armouris or the ballad Kastro tis Orias ("Castle of the Fair Maiden"). For a detailed survey, see Whittow 1996, pp. Anxious to avoid an ambush and learn the emperor's whereabouts, Mu'tasim forbade Ashinas to advance too deeply into Cappadocia. [34] Taken by surprise, the Byzantines' resistance was sporadic: some soldiers barricaded themselves in a monastery and were burned to death, while Aetios with his officers sought refuge in a tower before being forced to surrender. [9] While Theophilos returned home to celebrate a triumph and be acclaimed in the Hippodrome of Constantinople as the "incomparable champion", the refugees from Sozopetra began arriving at Mu'tasim's capital, Samarra. The city was fortified by the emperor Zeno in the 5th century, but did not rise to prominence until the 7th century. By way of comparison, the total nominal military forces available to Byzantium in the 9th century have been estimated at circa 100,000–120,000. The Abbasid campaign was led personally by the Caliph al-Mu'tasim (reigned 833–842), in retaliation to a virtually unopposed expedition launched by the Byzantine emperor Theophilos (r. 829–842) into the Caliphate's borderlands the previous year. Rumors of the Emperor's death created a whirlwind of plots to declare a new Emperor. Most of the survivors were released after a truce in 841, but prominent officials were taken to the caliph's capital of Samarra and executed years later after refusing to convert to Islam, becoming known as the 42 Martyrs of Amorium. Babak fled to Armenia, but was betrayed to the Abbasids and died of torture. al-Mu'tasim was born in 794 to Harun al-Rashid. Sack of Amorium-Wikipedia The other Muslim states were not idle, however: in March, the Byzantines were hit by three successive raids in Anatolia, organized by the Abbasid commander Mu'nis al-Muzaffar, while in August, a large raid led by Thamal of Tarsus penetrated as far as Ancyra and Amorium and returned with prisoners worth 136,000 gold dinars. Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838. This article appeared on Wikipedia's Main Page as Today's featured article on August 20, 2013. al-Mu'tasim (794-842) was the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 833 to 842, succeeding al-Ma'mun and preceding al-Wathiq. Unable to add item to List. They are commemorated … Top subscription boxes – right to your door, © 1996-2020,, Inc. or its affiliates. Bring your club to Amazon Book Clubs, start a new book club and invite your friends to join, or find a club that’s right for you for free. It was situated on the Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia. [38][39], Among the captured Byzantine magnates of Amorium, the strategos Aetios was executed soon after his capture, perhaps, as the historian Warren Treadgold suggests, in retaliation to Theophilos's second letter to the caliph. pp. [43] After years of captivity and no hope of ransom, the rest were urged to convert to Islam. Ashinas sent out many scouting detachments to take captives, and from them finally learned of Theophilos's presence at the Halys, where he awaited the Arab approach to give battle. The other Arab two forces arrived at Ancyra over the next days, and after plundering the deserted city, the united Arab army turned south towards Amorium. The Siege and Sack of Amorium The political situation of the Empire was often unsettled in the best of times. 845: The 42 Martyrs of Amorium. According to the legend of the 42 Martyrs, he converted to Islam, but was nevertheless executed by the caliph alongside the other captives; unlike the others, however, whose bodies "miraculously" floated in the water of the river Tigris, his sank to the bottom. [6], In 837, Theophilos decided—at the urging of the hard-pressed Babak—to take advantage of the Caliphate's preoccupation with the suppression of the Khurramite revolt and lead a major campaign against the frontier emirates. [35], The city was thoroughly sacked and plundered; according to the Arab accounts, the sale of the spoils went on for five days. Some scholars, like Bury and Treadgold, accept the figures of Tabari and Michael the Syrian as more or less accurate,[56] but other modern researchers are sceptical of such numbers, as medieval field armies were rarely more than 10,000 men strong, and both Byzantine and Arab military treatises and accounts suggest that armies usually numbered around 4,000–5,000. A little over a year after Theophilos's death, on 11 March 843, a synod restored the veneration of icons, and iconoclasm was declared heretical. Luckily for the Empire, Theophobos maintained a passive stance and made no move to confront Theophilos or join Mu'tasim. The Byzantine commander Boiditzes, however, who was in charge of the breach section, decided to conduct direct negotiations with the caliph on his own, probably intending to betray his own post. Despite initial success, the Byzantine army broke and scattered, while Theophilos with his guard were encircled and barely managed to break through and escape. You're listening to a sample of the Audible audio edition. To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. as a parallel to Amorium, the likely birthplace of Theophilos, and as a deliberate attempt to balance and lessen the impact of the latter's fall. Ancyra was quickly rebuilt and reoccupied, as was Amorium itself, although it never recovered its former glory and the seat of the Anatolic theme was for a time transferred to Polybotus. After the defeat at Anzen the Emperor had to immediately leave the battle against the Muslims in order to secure his throne. Amorium is the latinized pronunciation of its original Greek name Amorion (Greek: Ἀμόριον). The great city of Amorium in particular was the intended prize. ISSN,,,,,, "Campaign of the Arabs in Asia Minor, 838",,,, The Amorium Excavations Project – 25 Years of Archaeology: 1987-2012, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia. Mu'tasim was forced to cut short his campaign and return quickly to his realm, leaving intact the fortresses around Amorium as well as Theophilos and his army in Dorylaion. Later Byzantine historians attribute his death before the age of thirty to his sorrow over the impact of the city's loss, although this is most likely a legend. When the young emperor, Theophilus (r. 829–842), heard about the sack of Amorium -- his hometown, chosen by the caliph for that very reason, to make the sting hurt all the more -- he fell ill and died three years later, aged 28, reportedly from sorrow. He assembled a very large army,a[›] some 70,000 fighting men and 100,000 in total according to al-Tabari, and invaded Arab territory around the upper Euphrates almost unopposed. As Iconoclasm relied heavily on military success for its legitimization, the fall of Amorium contributed decisively to its abandonment shortly after Theophilos's death in 842. 43–67. Some captives were so exhausted that they could not move and were executed, whereupon others found the opportunity to escape.

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